Biopsychology Study Notes For Exam


What is the shape of the human brain ?

The human brain is a squishy, wrinkled, walnut shape.

Weighing of Brain – walnut-shaped ( Akhrot Shaped ) hunk of tissue)?

.1.3 KG – walnut-shaped hunk of tissue weighing about 1.3 kilograms, elephant 3 to 5 KG

What are neurons ?

cells that receive and transmit electrochemical signals

How many neuron found in on brain ?

Up to 100 billion neurons

What is neuroscience ?

(the scientific study of the nervous system)

What is the work of biopsychologists?

Learn about the function of  normal brain comes from studying the diseased or damaged brain etc.

 What is the evolutionary perspective?

IT is a biopsychology approach  has proven to be one of the cornerstones of modern biopsychological inquiry.

What is the other name of the Evolutionary Perspective ?

Comparative approach –  trying to understand biological phenomena by comparing them in different species.

What is neuro plasticity ?

it is a plastic  (changeable) organ that continuously grows and changes in response to the individual’s genes and experiences.

What is Biopsychology ?

Biopsychology is the scientific study of the biology of behavior ?

Another Name of Biopsychology ?

psychobiology, behavioral biology, or behavioral neuroscience

What is Psychology ?

Psychologyis the scientific study of behavior the scientific study of all overt activities of the organism as well as all the internal processes that are presumed to underlie them (e.g., learning, memory, motivation, perception, and emotion).

What is Neuroanatomy?

The study of the structure of the nervous system

The Second approach of Biopsychology ?

 Comparative approach – the study of biological processes by comparing different species

How many major divisions/Branches of biopsychology ?

  1.  physiological psychology
  2. psychopharmacology
  3. neuropsychology
  4.  psychophysiology
  5.  Cognitive neuroscience
  6.  comparative psychology

physiological psychology :-

  • The studies the neural mechanisms of behavior through
  • the direct manipulation of the brain in controlled experiments
  • surgical and electrical methods of brain manipulation are most common
  • There is also a tradition of pure research in physiological psychology


  • it focuses on the manipulation of neural activity and behavior with drugs.
  •  psychopharmacology is regarded as a separate discipline.
  • Although drugs are sometimes used by psycho pharmacologists to study the basic principles of
    brain behavior interaction
  • he purpose of many psychopharmacological experiments is to develop therapeutic drugs
  • Psycho pharmacologists study the effects of drugs on laboratory species and on humans  if the
    ethics of the situation permits it.


  • The study of the psychological effects of brain damage in human patient.
  • Neuropsychology deals almost exclusively with case studies and quasiexperimental
  • studies of patients with brain damage resulting from disease, accident ,or neurosurgery.
  •  It is the most applied of the biopsychological sub disciplines the neuropsychological assessment.


  • IT  is the division of biopsychology that studies the relation between physiological activity and psychological processes in human subject.
  • The usual measure of brain activity is the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Other common psycho physiological measures are muscle tension ,eye movement, and several indicators of autonomic nervous system activity
  • (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure ,pupil dilation, and electrical conductance of the skin)

Cognitive neuroscience

  • Cognitive neuroscience is the youngest division of biopsychology
  • Cognitive neuroscientists study the neural bases of cognition
  • Term that generally refers to higher intellectual processes such as thought, memory, attention  & complex perceptual processes.
  • functional brain imaging is the major method of cognitive neuroscience
  • brain-imaging technology to observe the changes that occur in various parts of the brain while human volunteers perform memory task

Comparative psychology

  • The division of biopsychology that deals generally with the biology of behavior ,rather than specifically with the neural mechanisms of behavior
  • Ethological research the study of animal behavior in its natural environment.
  • It is ao ne of these is evolutionary psychology that focuses

  • What is korsakoff s syndrome ?
  • The primary symptom of Korsakoff s syndrome is severe memory loss

What types of people effect by Koraskoff’’s Syndrom ?

  • Korsakoff s syndrome commonly occurs in alcoholics , brain damage associated with thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency.

What is the scientific inference?

The empirical method that biopsychologists and other scientists use to study the unobservable is called scientific inference.

Thinking about the Biology of Behavior


  • .Asomatognosia typically involves the left side of the body and usually results from damage to the right parietal lobe

What is the function of Asomatognosia?

  • It is deficiency in the awareness of parts of one s own body

How many pairs of Chromosomes ?

  • Each of its body cells humans have 23 pair.

What is meiosis?

  • The process of cell division that produces gametes (egg cells and sperm cells) is called meiosis.

Types of e typical chromosome ?

Autosomal chromosomes; Sex chromosome

What is transcription factors ?

Proteins that bind to DNA and influence the extent to which genes are expressed are called
transcription factors

What is Protein ?

Proteins are long chains of amino acids

Autonomy of Nervous System

How many Divisions of the nervous system ?

2 –central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system

Location of  Nervous system

CNS – located within the skull and spine

PNS –  located outside the skull and spine

Composed of CNS – Central Nervous System?

  • Composed of two divisions the brain and the spinal cord.

In Which part of brain Located CNS  & Spinal Cord ?

  • The brainis the part of the CNS that is located in the skull,
  • the spinal cordis the part that is located in the spine

How much division part of PNS ?

Peripheral nervous system is also composed of two divisions

The somatic nervous system, Autonomic nervous system.

What NS interacts with the external environment?

  •  (SNS) is the part of the PNS that interacts with the external environment

What SNS part carry the signals from Skin to skeletal ( Sensory motors) ?

afferent nerves

What SNS part carries the signals from Sensory-motor to body part ?

  • Efferent nerves that carry motor signals from the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles.

What is the Autonomic nervous system (ANS) ?

  • Itis the part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the body s internal environment


The brain and spinal cord (the CNS) are the most protected organs in the body.

( Protected with 3 Layers )

1 – three meninges (pronounced men-IN-gees ).

2 – The outer meninx (which, believe it or not,is the singular of meninges) is a tough membrane.

3 – 3rd protected Layers called the dura mater (tough mother).

4 – Cerebrospinal fluid  (CSF) protected the CNS. ( Spinal Cord )

Function OF CSF  ?

  • The cerebrospinal fluid supports and cushions the brain
  • Cerebrospinal fluid  (CSF) protected the CNS. ( Spinal Cord )

Another Name of small blood vessels – networks of capillaries

Types of Cells of the Nervous System?
Most of the cells of the nervous system are of two fundamentally different types

1 – neurons

 2 -glial cells.

What is neurons?

neurons are cells that are specialized for the reception, conduction, and transmission of electrochemical signals.

They come in an incredible variety of shapes and sizes (see Nelson, Sugino,& Hempel )

How much Types Of Neuron ?

Multipolar neuron,  unipolar neuron,  bipolar neuron, interneurons

Spinal Cord

What types of cover by Spinal cord ?

  1. Cover H Shaped with Gray Metter , Sourdnding of H Shaped area Is White Metter

What is the name of 4 arms of Spinal coard ?

  • The two dorsal arms of the spinal gray matter are called the dorsal horn
  • The two ventral arms are called the ventral horn

Book use – Pinal 8 Biopsychology

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